(b) The provisions of §§112.34, 112.35, 112.38, and 112.39 of this subchapter adopted in 2017 shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2018-2019 school year.Source: The provisions of this §112.31 adopted to be effective August 4, 2009, 34 Tex Reg 5063; amended to be effective August 24, 2010, 35 Tex Reg 7230; amended to be effective August 27, 2018, 42 Tex Reg 5052. Aquatic Science, Beginning with School Year 2010-2011 (One Credit). Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course.
Students who successfully complete Astronomy will acquire knowledge within a conceptual framework, conduct observations of the sky, work collaboratively, and develop critical-thinking skills. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the "use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process." This vast body of changing and increasing knowledge is described by physical, mathematical, and conceptual models.
Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science, High School.
(a) The provisions of this subchapter shall be implemented by school districts.
Students should analyze a system in terms of its components and how these components relate to each other, to the whole, and to the external environment. The student is expected to: (A) demonstrate safe practices during laboratory and field investigations; and (B) demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials. The student uses scientific methods during laboratory and field investigations.
Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed; (D) distinguish between scientific hypotheses and scientific theories; (E) plan and implement investigative procedures, including making observations, asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology; (F) collect data and make measurements with accuracy and precision; (G) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data, including making new revised hypotheses when appropriate; (H) communicate valid conclusions in writing, oral presentations, and through collaborative projects; and (I) use astronomical technology such as telescopes, binoculars, sextants, computers, and software. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to: (A) compare and contrast the scale, size, and distance of the Sun, Earth, and Moon system through the use of data and modeling; (B) compare and contrast the scale, size, and distance of objects in the solar system such as the Sun and planets through the use of data and modeling; (C) examine the scale, size, and distance of the stars, Milky Way, and other galaxies through the use of data and modeling; (D) relate apparent versus absolute magnitude to the distances of celestial objects; and (E) demonstrate the use of units of measurement in astronomy, including Astronomical Units and light years. The student knows the role of the Moon in the Sun, Earth, and Moon system. The student is expected to: (A) recognize that seasons are caused by the tilt of Earth's axis; (B) explain how latitudinal position affects the length of day and night throughout the year; (C) recognize that the angle of incidence of sunlight determines the concentration of solar energy received on Earth at a particular location; and (D) examine the relationship of the seasons to equinoxes, solstices, the tropics, and the equator. The student knows that planets of different size, composition, and surface features orbit around the Sun.